Thursday, March 19, 2020

Functionalist and Conflict theories Essay Essays

Functionalist and Conflict theories Essay Essays Functionalist and Conflict theories Essay Essay Functionalist and Conflict theories Essay Essay Sociology is the survey of society and the behavior forms of a peculiar group or civilization. In modern-day Australian society. a good apprehension of this is needed in order to do better societal alterations to run into societal demands. When it comes to seeking to explicate and understand society. there are two chief points of position that a individual can take. These are the functionalist position. which is mostly based on plants by Talcott Parsons. and the struggle position. sometimes referred to as Marxism. as Karl Marx made a important part towards this theory. Although in most ways these positions straight oppose each other. finally. they are both seeking to make the same thing. that is. explicate why society is like it is today. : Functionalists see society in a comparatively optimistic manner. They see groups as interdependent. working together for the good of the whole society. They claim that administrations and groups are mostly benevolent. and that they are at that place for utile intents. A individual who takes the functionalist position sees society as by and large runing swimmingly. and perceives that really small alteration is needed. as groups being interrelated agencies that alteration in one country will hold an consequence on the whole society. The functionalist position. while utile in explicating constructions and maps of assorted groups in society. tends to gloss over the negative facets of society. over-explaining them so that occurrences which could hold a big negative impact on society seem fiddling and unimportant. Where consensus is non go oning. it is the struggle position that has the better account. The struggle theory perceives society as stratified. that is. holding important divisions. It puts frontward a more ambitious. oppugning position on society. Peoples who support this position claim that in every establishment there are some people with more power. chances and position than others. This position is about inequalities. dissension. and the usage of power to advantage some while disfavoring others. The struggle theory is the direct antonym of functionalism in that it focuses on the negative facets of society. and even when something is working comparatively good. struggle theoreticians tend to analyze it until they do happen something incorrect. doing a mountain out of a metaphoric molehill. So while the functionalist theory and the struggle theory are two extremes of sociological thought. it is non necessary to take the position of either one or the other. Very seldom are state of affairss clearly black and white. Most frequently. if non ever. there are many sunglassess of Grey in between. Therefore it is of import to take on the position of both theories. and figure out which facet of a peculiar state of affairs applies to which theory. A good illustration of merely how much the two opposing positions differ is to use them both to the cosmopolitan establishment. the household. Functionalists see the household as a critical establishment that is needed to transport out several of import maps. These maps are: ?Regulating sexual behavior and reproduction ?Socialising kids ?Protecting kids and the aged ?Providing emotional support and fondness for its members ?Serving as an of import ingestion unit for society’s merchandises ( Earle and Fopp. 1999 ) These maps by and large still work good in the instances of socialization and reproduction. attention of the kids and the aged. and as an economic unit. earning and consuming. However in today’s society. where there is an increasing sum of domestic maltreatment every bit good as working individual parents or two working parents. members of a household aren’t ever able to supply emotional support and fondness for other members. Besides in today’s modern society there are a great sum of people holding sex before matrimony. and an alarmingly big sum of teenage gestation. Therefore households are non transporting out the map of modulating sexual behavior and reproduction every bit much as they were 20 or thirty old ages ago. Functionalists frequently use biological comparings. claiming that a household is like an being. with each member holding a peculiar function. These functions are considered natural. and must be carried out for the good of the whole household. These functions involve work forces traveling out into the work force and taking economic leading while the adult females stay at place looking after her kids and hubby and making all the housekeeping. The functionalist theory claims the atomic household as the ‘norm’ . The atomic household consists of two parents. one of each gender. and their kids populating together in one family. Although this construction is still reasonably typical of today’s society. it was much more prevalent in the 1950’s. Today there are many fluctuations of the household. and merely about half of households are atomic. With divorce and individual parent households steadily on the rise. and adult females desiring the same rights as work forces. functionalists are holding to come up with ways to explicate these happenings. For illustration. with divorce. a functionalist would reason that divorce is a good thing because it means that when people marry the 2nd clip unit of ammunition they will hold more experience and it will be more likely to last. However. this theory is considered out-of-date. In today’s society with a lifting economic system more and more adult females are traveling out into the work force. But this excess function does non intend giving up their other function as carer. Womans end up taking on two functions – that of the carer and the homemaker. every bit good as that of a worker. This is going unwanted for adult females. doing them loath to get married. The functionalist theory fails to take into consideration the simple fact that things change. And where the functionalist theory doesn’t rather apply. the struggle theory has the better account. The struggle position sees traditional functions in households as restricting women’s lives to caring for their hubby and kids. They claim that this agreement is non biological at all. but socially constructed. that is. created by people. These functions have been around and accepted for so long that they seem natural. but the struggle position argues that in existent fact people have been trained over many old ages into believing this manner. The struggle theory emphasises disagreement and battle as a portion of any human group. Conflict theoreticians say that in any group there will be position issues. something will be unjust. and the power will be divided – some will give orders. others will obey. This applies to the household in that it is frequently. if non ever. the parents giving orders to their children/teenagers. who are supposed to obey. Besides. even in today’s altering society. work forces still frequently have more power than their married womans. In modern Australian society. there are demographic alterations in household signifier. and household families are well smaller. The alterations in household agreement and in household values have of import effects for the household as an establishment. Fewer adult females are holding big households and the matrimony rate has declined. mostly because of alterations in attitudes to marriage and populating agreements. There is an increasing sum of non merely de facto relationships. but besides in the societal credence of these relationships. The divorce rate has besides increased. which so in bend influences the figure of blended every bit good as individual parent households. The struggle theory addresses these issues. and asks the of import inquiry ‘what needs to be changed in order for the household unit to last? ’ On the other manus. the functionalist theory attempts to explicate why these things are go oning and how they benefit society. Both the functionalist and struggle theories raise some really valid and of import points. Functionalism sometimes has a inclination to concentrate on the past. while the struggle theory places a bigger accent on the present. However. both theories are needed if the household is to last in the hereafter.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Free sample - Problems Related to Bullying of Students. translation missing

Problems Related to Bullying of Students. Problems Related to Bullying of StudentsBullying of Students in Schools and Suggested Solutions Bullying of students in schools has both long ranging emotional and physical problems to both the students being bullied and the bully. The emotional problems that the bullied children encounter are quite enormous (Olweus, 1994, p.23). Some of these problems are lack of self esteem for the student since if the form of this bullying involves teasing; abuses or even physical beating they weigh down the emotions of the child leaving them feeling unworthy to live. Stress is eminent in children being bullied in school and this will always cause the child mental problems in the future if not mitigated in time to allow the child to live a normal life (Craig ,1998, p.13). The issue of stress will generate a further problem in the child where you are likely to witness diminishing academic performance. Bullying can also lead to lack of social confidence. This occurs mainly because the child will feel they lack in their social standing and that is why they are constantly bullied by their peers. They also feel that they are being silenced and that way they may not have the confidence to even face those in authority and explain what is happening to them. This fact aggravates the situation because this will give their bullies the confidence to perpetrate this vice further. Behavioral change occurs in students who constantly get bullied. this may manifest itself in all manners ranging from withdrawal symptoms, unhappiness, poor appetite, complaining of being always 'sick' so as to avoid going to school even in situations where the student had been very enthusiastic about it daily, and avoidance of using certain routes which the student used routinely (Craig ,1998, p.16). These issues will always affect the students’ ability to live a free life due to the fear of being attacked by their bullies. Being frightened is also a problem associated with bullying in schools. Students who are constantly bullied are always frightened and this will hamper the students' ability to socialize freely with the people around them. The underlying problems generally associated with bullying not only affect the bullied students but also affects the bully themselves. These behaviors may culminate in poor academic performances on these bullies since once they do it they may have a sense of satisfaction thus leading poor concentration on studies. Some of them do it to get noticed by their peers and this also gives them a sense of pride despite poor grades in school (Salmivalli, Lagerspetz Bjà ¶rkqvist, 1996, p.7). Students who bully their fellow students may carry this behavior to their adulthood leading to poor social interrelations which may impede their pursuit of fine jobs since they do not fit well at work place. These behaviors may also lead to poor relationships in adulthood and affect their ability to establish family relations and even raise one (Whitney Smith, 1993, p.11). Students who get bullied are also affected physically. The physical attack on a student will leave the student with bodily harm which may be bruises or even serious injuries such as fractures in severe cases or deep cuts to the body. Severe bullying may also leave the students’ health deteriorating day by day. This may manifest itself in form of serious body weight loss. Students who have severe stress as a result of bullying may experience loss of appetite and lead to serious health problems such malnutrition, lack essential vitamins (Whitney Smith, 1993, p.11). Poor health may lead to poor brain development depending on the age of the student and in the long run lead to poor academic performances. Early childhood development being a crucial stage in life ought to be handled carefully so as to give the child a great future (Kaltiala-Heino, Rimpel Rantanen, 2000, p.6). When the above problems are noticed in school going children, it is imperative for parents and guardians to take the first step to establish what is bothering their children (Smith, 1999, p.5). This is because knowing and understanding the causes of their children's problems will give them the next cause of action towards eliminating the causes and helping their children to heal. Firstly, talk to your children and encourage them to talk freely about what they are going through, assuring them that whatever they are going through can be solved if they reveal all the details of their problems (O’Connell Pepler, 1999, p.18). It is important that you clearly tell the child all that you have noticed them in terms of behavioral change and also assure them that whatever they are undergoing is not their own fault and therefore revealing information will lead to solving all the problems they are undergoing. As a parent or guardian it is important to get to the bottom of the matter by gathering all related information from the child. This should include who has been bulling your child, when and where this occurred and maybe what may have triggered this to happen (O’Connell Pepler, 1999, p.18). Once these details are obtained from the child it gives the parent clear guidelines on how to approach the whole situation Parents are advised to encourage children to report the matter or any form of bullying to the school authorities whenever they occur, giving all the details of the vice to the best knowledge of their child (Olweus, 1991, p.12). In cases where the child is too frightened to speak about the same .parents are advised to take up the matter firmly and go to the school authorities and give the all the details as obtained from their child. By doing so, the authorities will find the matter more serious and give it immediate attention (Olweus, 1994, p.8). Schools are also advised to partner with the government so as to formulate policies of addressing cases of bullying in learning institutions for this will set up a framework within which schools will generate policies in line with the set legal framework.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Economical and Environmental Consequences of Overfishing Essay

Economical and Environmental Consequences of Overfishing - Essay Example The problem of overfishing has its roots in human activities. Human beings have the mandate of taking care of their environments but in most cases, they do not do it. Human activities increase carbon emissions, which is a root cause of the problem is acidification of our seas. According to United Nations Environment as quoted in Ecocentric times, increasing carbon emissions has found its way in our oceans and the PH balance is no longer the same. Although only a few species like the crabs, corals, and shellfish will be greatly affected by acidification of the seas, a broken ecosystem balance will also affect the fish and hence food security (Walsh Web). It is worth noting, with interest, that all forms of life are interdependent and that extinction of one form of life threatens the survival of the rest of the ecosystem either directly or indirectly. On a global scale, the world has enough fish to cater for all its inhabitants and three other planets like earth. This means that the pr oblem is not with less fish in our oceans. According to Koster, â€Å"Worldwide, fishing fleets are two to three times as large as needed to take present-day catches of fish and other marine species and as what our oceans can support† (Koster, 2011, p.1). ...Statistics show that for every five persons, one depends on fish as a source of protein. Monterey Bay Aquarium foundation as quoted in Sea the Sea website clearly shows a great rise in fishing volumes. It is claimed, â€Å"Between 1950 and 1994, total fish caught increased by 400% and this increased in subsequent years† (Sea-the Sea, Web). UN Food and Agricultural Organisation statistics as quoted in Overfishing website depicts that there is no proper balance of fishing habits. That is â€Å"52% of fish fully exploited, 20% moderately exploited, 17% overexploited, 7% depleted, and 1% recovering from depletion† (Koster, 2011, p.1). At times overfishing is caused by corrupt activities of the managers of the se as who fully aware of the stress in our seas allow fishing. First, overfishing is a problem since economically fishing is an activity that supports so many livelihoods who earn a living from it. According to a UN website, â€Å"200 million people in the world depend on fishing worldwide† (Natal, 2006, P.1). Overfishing means that we are risking such millions of people losing their ways of earning a living. This is because fish is a finite resource that depletes over time especially if the stocks of fish left cannot replenish themselves. Secondly, overfishing destroys the normal ecosystem flow of marine species. This occurs after the extinction of one or more species that depend on the other for survival, which means that extinction of one or more fish species will adversely affect other sea species or even cause their extinction too.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Assignment (Economics) Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

(Economics) - Assignment Example The adverse impact of tax hike was phenomenal for casual drinkers as they massively reduced their consumption, thereby resulting in overall decrease in aggregate beer demand. Obviously, the producers were unable to increase prices substantially considering demand / consumption pattern and thus suffered stupendous financial losses. For instance, the producers adopted downsizing strategy, which in turn resulted in 50,000 job losses. The revenues to government also declined in general as the beer industry did not record significant market expansion and growth. The demand from hardcore drinkers also reduced as they switched to other cheap drinks to ensure their balance of their financial budgets. All in all, the rollback of levies / taxes would not lead to mammoth rise in consumption; rather will reduce financial burden on producers as well as consumers. Next, consumers would not change their drinking habit and start consuming irresponsibly; therefore, this is just a myth that rollback o f beer taxes may cause grave healthcare issues. Reference Beer Tax Website â€Å"Just the Facts† Roll Back the Beer Tax

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Middle Eastern History Essay -- essays research papers

1)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Statecraft and the unity of state and religion The fact that three quarters of the Koran is focused on civil procedure makes us appreciate how important establishing the state was to Muhammad. He embedded in these procedures in the Koran because he wanted no separation between religion and state. For good reason, having no split between these two facets leaves no gray area of rule that conforms to one system and not the other. He did not want the loyalties of his people to clash between their faith and their government. This achievement originated through the Koran’s integration of scriptures and civil guidelines. 2)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Absence of Clergy The absence of clergy within the Islamic faith is attributed to three causes.  §Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the early days of Islam, Muhammad would preach in the holy city of Mecca. During this time, Mecca was filled with Christians, Jews, and Pagans. The Christian and Jewish clergymen would mock Muhammad day and night; they discouraged and embarrassed him with hopes to break his will. Its safe to assume that from the start, Muhammad has a negative feel towards clergyman.  §Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Islamic faith is the much more self-serving than any of the other major religions. You convert yourself, marry yourself, & pray yourself. Muhammad did not feel it was essential or even necessary to institute a higher authority in the place of worship.  §Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Before Muhammad become The Prophet, he was very established, and greatly successful as a businessman. And his business intellect led him to the conclusion that it would be a waste of funds to setup a higher authority in the mosques. After all if he were to succeed at spreading Islamic influence into the Persian and Arabian Empires, he would need all the funds he could get.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   3) Law Issues a.  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Legal procedures The Islamic judicial system has somewhat a resemblance to the American judicial system. The greatest similarity is the practice that a person is innocent until proven guilty. Another likeness is the practice of Habeas Corpus. This provides that no person shall be held against his or her will without being formally charged with a crime. However, a major difference in regards to legal procedure between our two cult... ...nbsp;  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Toleration of other religions and traditions Muhammad the statesman felt that it would have been ridiculous and unproductive to be abusive of other religions. After all, Muslim religion was built on Christian and Jewish faith. To attack the foundation, would be undermining the very faith of Islam. Because Islam is both a religion and a state, Muhammad felt it would be easier to run his state welcoming other religions. This principle allowed the great Muslim conquests into the Arabian and Persian territories to be so successful. If communities did not convert, they simply followed the credo of Islamic statehood and kept their religion. 9)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Education Before Muhammad was a successful, lucrative businessman, he was a poor, illiterate orphan. In fact, when Muhammad first received revelations from Allah, he wasn’t educated enough to transcribe them on paper. Just as the absence of prejudice amongst genders and classes, the availability of high education to all is also a pillar in the Islam way of life. If you are of Muslim faith, the Koran states that it is a requirement to become educated.

Friday, January 17, 2020

English as Second Language

Insight Text Guide Ruth Thomas The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif Najaf Mazari & Robert Hillman  © Insight Publications 2010 Copyright Insight Publications 2009 First published in 2009 by Insight Publications Pty Ltd ABN 57 005 102 983 219 Glenhuntly Road Elsternwick VIC 3185 Australia Tel: +61 3 9523 0044 Fax: +61 3 9523 2044 Email: [email  protected] com. au www. insightpublications. com. u Copying for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be copied by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Tel: +61 2 9394 7600 Fax: +61 2 9394 7601 Email: [email  protected] com. u Copying for other purposes Except as permitted under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address above. National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry: Thomas, Ruth, 1980– Najaf Mazari and Robert Hillman’s The rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif : insight text guide / Ruth Thomas. 1st ed. 9781921411038 (pbk. ) Insight text guide. Bibliography.For secondary school age. Mazari, Najaf, 1971– Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif. 325. 2109581 Printed in Australia by Hyde Park Press  © Insight Publications 2010 contents Character map Overview About the author Synopsis Character summaries iv 1 1 2 3 Background & context Genre, structure & language Chapter-by-chapter analysis Characters & relationships Themes, i deas & values Different interpretations Questions & answers Sample answer References & reading 6 11 16 32 40 51 57 65 68  © Insight Publications 2010 iv CHARACT ARACTER MAP Hakima Najaf’s wife, whom he marries when both are 27; stays in Pakistan before joining Najaf in Australia. other of husband and wife admires Maria Najaf and Hakima’s daughter; a baby when she is taken to Pakistan; travels to Australia with Hakima to be reunited with her father. Gorg Ali Mazari Najaf’s eldest brother; killed by a sniper during a battle between the Russians and the mujahedin. brothers father of Abdul Ali Mazari Becomes head of the family after Gorg Ali is killed. respects Najaf Mazari Afghani rugmaker who ? ees con? ict in his homeland and arrives in Australia as a refugee. helps Robin Closest friend in Australia. helps brothers frustrated by Colin Rug dealer; a close friend in Australia.Rosal Ali Mazari Younger, irresponsible brother; killed in a rocket explosion. brothers  © Insight Publications 2010 1 OVERVIEW About the authors Najaf Mazari was born in 1971 in the small village of Shar Shar in northern Afghanistan. At 12 years of age, after his family had moved to the city of Mazar-e-Sharif, Najaf became an apprentice rugmaker – an occupation that suited his propensity for both creativity and hard work. Seeing through his apprenticeship and aspiring to make beautiful rugs gave the young Najaf some respite from the horror of the incessant con? ct around him. In 2001, Najaf ? ed Afghanistan. The Taliban had occupied the north of the country and were carrying out genocide against men in Mazar-e-Sharif. Najaf was captured, tortured and narrowly escaped death before his family paid a people smuggler to convey him out of the country. Najaf reluctantly left his family and his beloved homeland, and embarked on a dangerous journey to Australia. He was detained in the Woomera Detention Centre while his application for refugee status was processed. He then settled in Melbourne, where he opened a rug shop.In 2006, Najaf’s wife and daughter were given permission by the Australian government to join him in Australia. He was granted Australian citizenship in 2007. The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif is Najaf’s memoir of living with con? ict and of enduring its far-reaching consequences. Melbourne-based ? ction writer and biographer Robert Hillman helps Najaf tell his story. Hillman’s collaboration with Najaf on The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif continues his literary preoccupation with the hardships and triumphs of ordinary people caught up in war and political unrest.Hillman’s 2007 biography, My Life as a Traitor, tells the story of Zarha Ghahramani, a young Iranian woman who was imprisoned, tortured and persecuted after participating in student protests at Tehran University. Hillman, who met Zarha while he was working as a journalist in Iran, supported her through her settlement as a refugee in Australia. His a rticles about refugees have been published in a number of newspapers and magazines, including The New York Times and The Australian. My Life as a Traitor has been published in the United States and the United Kingdom and was nominated for the 2008 Insight Publications 2010 2 Prime Minister’s Literary Award. Like The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-e-Sharif My Life as a Traitor contains thoughtful meditations on Zarha’s culture, which ensures that the book provides something more than a grim and shocking portrayal of war and suffering. Hillman’s autobiography, The Boy in the Green Suit (2003), a memoir about his own journey through the Middle East as a teenager, won the 2005 National Biography Prize. The text was praised for its artfulness, evocation of restlessness, humour and optimism. His ? ction has also been widely praised.It includes A Life of Days (1988), The Hour of Disguise (1990), Writing Sparrow Hill (1996) and The Deepest Part of the Lake (2001). An experienced teacher and university lecturer, Hillman also writes educational texts for secondary-school audiences. Synopsis Najaf’s life begins in the small village of Shar Shar in northern Afghanistan, a place of hilly pastures, sunshine, snow, and bright green grass in spring. Najaf works as a shepherd boy, responsible for protecting the family’s ? ock from wolves. Going to school comes second to his shepherding duties.When Najaf is eight his father dies and the family (now headed by Najaf’s much-loved eldest brother, Gorg Ali) moves north to the city of Mazar-e-Sharif. Gorg Ali arranges an apprenticeship for Najaf when he turns 12 and is no longer, within Afghani culture, a boy; he is a young man ready to learn a trade. Najaf is ? rst apprenticed to a blacksmith, but ? nds the work tedious and deeply unsatisfying. He secretly abandons his job to begin an apprenticeship under a master rugmaker. He quickly comes to love rugmaking and his passion for it offers a sanctuary from the war that rages around him.His work, however, does not shield him from the reality of con? ict. War in? icts terrible personal costs on young Najaf. Gorg Ali is gunned down in a battle between Russian and mujahedin soldiers in Shar Shar. Najaf’s younger brother, Rosal Ali, is killed when a mortar shell explodes over the family home in the middle of the night. Najaf is injured in the attack and his apprenticeship jeopardised because the wound to his leg takes many months to heal. Najaf is just 13 when he endures these terrible experiences.  © Insight Publications 2010 3Although he is a civilian and remains staunchly opposed to violence throughout his life, con? ict continues to impact upon Najaf during adulthood. In 1998, the Taliban invade Mazar-e-Sharif. The Taliban massacre men and boys of Najaf’s Hazara clan and then capture and torture any survivors they ? nd. Now married with a baby daughter, Najaf is kidnapped and whipped with cables. Howeve r, to his and his family’s disbelief, he is released. Knowing he will not be so lucky a second time, Najaf escapes Afghanistan, putting his life in the hands of a people smuggler.The dangerous journey takes him through Afghanistan to Pakistan, then on to Indonesia and towards Australia on a condemnable boat. The boat eventually becomes stranded on Ashmore Reef, north of Australia. Najaf, along with other asylum seekers on board, is rescued by the Australian navy and conveyed to Woomera Detention Centre. Here, Najaf endures the ordeal of waiting, his fate resting with immigration of? cials who will decide whether he has valid reason to stay in Australia. After months of detainment, Najaf is granted refugee status. He begins a life in Melbourne and, through hard work and hope, establishes a rug-selling business.More good news comes when Najaf is granted Permanent Residency Status, which not only means he can stay in Australia for good, but also that his wife, Hakima, and daught er, Maria, can move to Australia and join him in Melbourne. Overwhelmed by happiness and appreciation of the seemingly impossible things that have happened, Najaf thanks God for his good fortune and promises to remember and honour those Afghanis who were not able to survive the country’s violent con? icts. Character summaries Najaf Mazari The central character and narrator. The narrator is in his mid 30s when he tells his story.Najaf is a young boy, teenager and young man in the story. He is less than eight years old when working as a shepherd boy in Shar Shar and about 12 when he begins his rugmaking apprenticeship.  © Insight Publications 2010 4 Gorg Ali Najaf’s much admired eldest brother. In keeping with Afghani tradition, Gorg Ali takes over as head of the family when Najaf’s father dies. Gorg Ali is a gentle man who believes that ? ghting is senseless and futile. He works as a tinsmith and a beekeeper. Gorg Ali is killed by a stray bullet when he goes to tend the family beehives near Shar Shar. Abdul Ali Najaf’s second-eldest brother.When Gorg Ali dies, Abdul Ali becomes the head of the family and bears the ? nancial burden that results from the mortar attack on the family’s home. Abdul Ali is more hot-headed than Gorg Ali and subjects Najaf to several blows about the head when he discovers Najaf has secretly quit his job as a blacksmith. Abdul Ali is a butcher. Rosal Ali Najaf’s younger brother. Rosal Ali is hopelessly irresponsible, mischievous and cheeky. He often provokes Najaf’s anger. Najaf, as the older brother, lectures Rosal Ali. Rosal Ali is killed when the Mazaris’ home is destroyed in the mortar attack.Najaf’s mother An important member of the Mazari family. Najaf’s mother has the ? nal say on her son’s marriage plans and rules the inside of the house in partnership with the head of the family. In turn, Najaf is respectful to his mother and often acts protectively towards her. Najaf sees his mother (and the rest of his family) on a number of occasions after leaving Afghanistan, when he undertakes rug-buying trips to Pakistan. Hakima Najaf’s wife. She is the same age as Najaf; they marry at the age of 27. Hakima stays in Pakistan between 2001, when Najaf ? es Afghanistan, and 2006, when she is granted permission by the Australian government to join Najaf in Australia.  © Insight Publications 2010 5 Maria Najaf and Hakima’s daughter. Maria is just a baby when Najaf sends her and Hakima to safety in Pakistan. She is reunited with her father ? ve years later. Robin An Australian woman who becomes Najaf’s closest friend in Australia. She helps Najaf learn English and holds a party to celebrate his achievements in his new home. Colin A Melbourne rug dealer who helps Najaf with his business. He drives Najaf to the airport to be reunited with Hakima and Maria.  © Insight Publications 2010 BACKGROUND & CONTEXT Con? ict in Afgh anistan Najaf’s homeland has a long history of violent and bitter armed con? ict that spans centuries. This is partly due to the region’s geography. As Najaf says, ‘just look at the location of Afghanistan on a map of Asia and the Middle East, with neighbours and near-neighbours like Russia, Pakistan and Iran’ (p. 34). The area has enormous geographical and strategic signi? cance. Foreign powers, from the ancient Macedonians through to the colonial British and communist Russians, have striven to secure territory or allies there, with little regard for the desires of the local people.Anger towards foreign invaders is evident in Najaf’s observation that Afghanistan and Afghanis were ‘supposed to ? t into the political strategies of the powerful’ (p. 35). Afghanis tried to ? ght off invaders, and also fought each other as various tribal and ethnic groups each attempted to stake out their own parcels of territory. In the period from 1973 to 2000, ? ve separate con? icts took place in Afghanistan, including civil wars (armed con? ict between opposing parties within one country) and international wars (armed con? ct between two or more countries). This particularly turbulent period commenced when Mohammad Daoud Khan assumed power in a military coup. Daoud failed to deliver much-needed economic and social reform and was ultimately overthrown in a second coup in 1978. This uprising was led by the Marxist Nur Mohammad Taraki, who implemented a liberal and socialist agenda, replacing religious and traditional laws with secular, Marxist ones. Taraki was soon ousted by Ha? zullah Amin, who was in turn replaced in yet another coup by Babrak Karmal.Najaf recalls that, by the time he was 13, Afghanistan had been ruled by four presidents, all of whom represented the Communist Party (pp. 149–50). Karmal was supported by the Russian government, or controlled by it, as Najaf suggests (p. 11), and continued to implement Marxis t reforms. While many people in the cities either approved of these changes or were ambivalent about them, many traditional and conservative Afghanis in villages and rural areas were bitterly opposed. Opposition groups, known as mujahedin (‘holy Muslim warrior’), began to form. The  © Insight Publications 2010

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Speech Is The Effective Form Of A Culture - 972 Words

Speech is the effective form of a culture. Poetry enhances the effectiveness of speech if it didn’t then why do communication teachers do things like have you look outside the window and write a poem about what you see in class? Poetry helps you step outside the box be more creative it allows you the chance to speak and so does spoken word which is another form of poetry that I will discuss later in the essay. Poetry was very relevant during times like ancient Greece .If you mention the names Homer, Shakespeare and Sophocles then you will notice people are mostly familiar with those poets. Although the work they created was long ago they would still remember are known they are a famous figure in history. Even during their times they were know figures. Today in the 21st century poetry is dead nobody no longer wants to hear it understand it or listen to it; it doesn’t matter. Poetry was a form of literature that was once a potent drink that has now become diluted. Liter ature helps us understand and make sense of the world around us. Through literature, we explore the human condition and analyze how and why people think the way they think and feel the way they feel. Literature enables us to develop our minds analytically and promotes open minds. We see the world through the eyes of different writers from different cultures and in turn learn the ways to deal with things happening around us. Without literature, we lack insight and understanding of human nature.Show MoreRelatedLanguage Is A Process Of Free Creation919 Words   |  4 Pagesinfinitely varied† (Chomsky). Throughout several cultures, each has their own set of ideas and rules for its language. One language could have several variations of the same sentence structure, grammar, or word definitions. In school, students are taught that language can only be communicated effectively through the proper use of language. This leads to the development of descriptivism and prescriptivism. 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